Zeshan Muhammad v. Spain
Ethnic Profiling in Spain
Ethnic profiling by law enforcement officers continues to be a persistent and pervasive practice throughout Spain, particularly in the context of immigration control. In 2009, the UN Human Rights Committee rejected this practice as unlawful discrimination in the Rosalind Williams v. Spain case. Despite this, it appears that the Spanish Constitutional Court’s discriminatory assumption that Spanish nationals could only be white, made in the 2001 decision leading to the UN case, remains the official doctrine. While Spain has increasingly become a multiethnic country, national and international human rights oversight bodies and civil society organizations have repeatedly reported Spanish police forces’ use of racial or ethnic features as the sole basis to decide whether to conduct identity checks in order to detect undocumented migrants, which amount to discrimination. In other words, if you are a Spanish national or documented migrant belonging to an ethnic minority you are perceived as a foreigner and repeatedly stopped for immigration checks. Despite the efforts of some law enforcement officials to eradicate the practice of ethnic profiling, the unfettered stop-and-search powers granted to the police by the Public Security Law compounded by the lack of any police oversight mechanism, among other factors, prove to be obstacles to bring this discriminatory practice to a halt.
Zeshan Muhammad is a young Pakistani who has lived and studied in Spain since he was an adolescent. He currently holds a long-term residence permit that allows him to live and work in Spain indefinitely, under the same conditions as if he were a Spaniard. In May 2013, Muhammad and a friend of his, both with ethnic features different from the white Spanish majority population, were stopped in the street by National Police officers who requested them to show their ID cards. Muhammad and his friend immediately showed their IDs, and Muhammad respectfully asked what the reason for the ID check was. The officer referred to the color of Muhammad’s skin to explain the reason behind the ID check. The police did not stop or request the ID of any other person belonging to the white majority population.
Open Society Justice Initiative Involvement
The Open Society Justice Initiative has assisted Zeshan Muhammad in the filing of an administrative claim within the Spanish legal system, and in preparing his application to the European Court of Human Rights. SOS Racisme Catalunya, an organization based in Barcelona that has been fighting racism for 25 years, is working jointly with the Justice Initiative in this case.
Spain’s treatment of Muhammad violates a range of provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights:
The police stop of Muhammad was discriminatory. The stop suffered by Muhammad was a violation of the right not to be subjected to discrimination on grounds of race, colour or ethnic origin (Protocol 12 of the European Convention on Human Rights).
Violation of the right to private life. The discriminatory identity check that Mr. Muhammad had to endure compounded by the fact that it was conducted in public view and in an undignified manner, humiliated and embarrassed him, and contributes to the stereotyping of his ethnic group, which amounts to a violation of Muhammad’s right to respect for private life, a breach of article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights.
Violation of the right to a fair hearing. There were numerous irregularities in the proceedings through which the applicant sought compensation for ill-treatment by state agents, which rendered the process unfair, infringing Muhammad’s right to a fair hearing under article 6 (1) of the European Convention.
Justice Initiative submits observations in reply to the Government’s observations, request for just satisfaction, and general measures pursuant to Article 41 and Article 46 of the Convention.
The European Court of Human Rights communicated the case to the Spanish Government under Article 8 read alone and in conjunction with Article 14 of the Convention and Protocol No. 12 to the Convention. The claim under Article 6 was found inadmissible. The Court requested from the Government to submit a statement of facts together with their observations by April 13, 2018.
Application filed before European Court of Human Rights.
In a three-line decision the Constitutional Court found the case has no constitutional relevance and declared it inadmissible.
Application for protection of constitutional rights (amparo) filed with Constitutional Court.
High Court dismissed request for review.
Request for review of judicial decision on grounds of nullity filed with High Court.
High Court’s decision dismissed claim.
Zeshan Muhammad stopped in the vicinity of Barcelona’s harbor.
Data Alone Won’t Stop Ethnic Profiling
While many police officers in Belgium recognize that ethnic profiling is real and harmful, acknowledging the problem is only the beginning. It’s time for law enforcement to move beyond words and make concrete policy changes.
Confronting the Tigers: How Young Parisians Use the Law to Expose Police Abuse
Four police officers in Paris are on trial for assault, in a case that is highlighting the human cost of abusive and discriminatory policing.
For a New Path Forward, Denmark Must Commit to Equality
Life in Denmark has become increasingly difficult for the thousands of Muslim citizens and immigrants in the country. Many new policies ostracize Muslims—and they are illegal.